All Grizzly Bears Articles

Feb 7, 2011 — Web Page: Bear Pepper Spray

Bear pepper spray is the most effective means of repelling an attacking grizzly or black bear in a non-toxic, non-lethal manner. Although common sense might suggest that guns would provide greater personal protection, research and experience indicates that human-bear encounters that do not involve firearms are less likely to result in injury to a human or bear.

Jan 31, 2011 — Report/White Paper: Behaviour of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in relation to closure of the McLeod Lake landfill in north-central British Columbia

To assess the likelihood that different sex and age classes of bears that use landfills would display problem behaviour following landfill closure, we conducted the McLeod Lake Landfill Grizzly Bear Behaviour Project over a 3-year period: 2000 (pre-landfill closure), 2001 and 2002 (post-landfill closure). Our study was designed to identify attributes or behaviours that may be used to predict which bears are more likely to seek out alternate human-food sources after a landfill closes, thus becoming problem bears and posing a threat to humans. If we are able to predict whether certain classes of bears are more likely to become problems than others, this knowledge could be applied during subsequent landfill closures where those bears with an increased likelihood of posing a threat to human safety would be destroyed, while the remaining bears would be allowed to live.

Jan 5, 2011 — Book: Ghost Grizzlies and Other Rare Bruins

Ghost Grizzlies and Other Rare Bruins features stunning photos of Ghosts and other rare varieties, such as Basalt, Ebony, and Lava grizzly/brown bears. It also shares the adventures of two Ghost grizzly cubs. Finally, it teaches you expert techniques for identifying the variety, sex and age/maturity of a bear, as well as how to recognize bears as individuals.

Jan 1, 2011 — Book: Bears of the Last Frontier: The Adventure of a Lifetime among Alaska's Black, Grizzly, and Polar Bears

The book follows the PBS TV crew as they travel more than 4,000 miles around Alaska, and it details the hardships and challenges that come with filming a nature documentary. Packed with gorgeous color photographs of bears in their natural habitats, Bears of the Last Frontier is a keepsake for anyone interested in wildlife conservation.

Dec 13, 2010 — Web Page: Wildlife on the Road

Animal collisions pose a risk to wildlife, people and their property. Help us to reduce the staggering number of incidents by following these guidelines.........

Nov 30, 2010 — Report/White Paper: A proposed lexicon of terms and concepts for human–bear management in North America

The authors believe that communication within and among agency personnel in the United States and Canada about the successes and failures of their human-bear (Ursidae) management programs will increase the effectiveness of these programs and of bear research. To communicate more effectively, they suggest agencies clearly define terms and concepts used in human-bear management and use them in a consistent manner. They constructed a human-bear management lexicon of terms and concepts using a modified Delphi method to provide a resource that facilitates more effective communication among human-bear management agencies.

May 1, 2010 — Book: Grizzly Manifesto: In Defence of the Great Bear

This book examines the challenges facing grizzly populations in Canada and the United States.

Dec 31, 2009 — Scientific Paper: Identification of Priority Areas for Grizzly Bear Conservation and Recovery in Alberta, Canada

In Alberta, Canada, high rates of human-caused mortality threaten the long-term persistence of grizzly bears. To reduce this threat, the provincial grizzly bear recovery team suggested that core conservation areas of at least 2,400 km2 be delineated for each of seven population units where open access road density is limited to 0.6 km/km2 and buffered by secondary conservation areas where road density is limited to 1.2 km/km2.

Dec 4, 2009 — Report/White Paper: Respect for Grizzly Bears: an Aboriginal Approach for Co-existence and Resilience

Aboriginal peoples' respect for grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) is widely acknowledged, but rarely explored, in wildlife management discourse in northern Canada. Practices of respect expressed toward bears were observed and grouped into four categories: terminology, stories, reciprocity, and ritual. In the southwest Yukon, practices in all four categories form a coherent qualitative resource management system that may enhance the resilience of the bear-human system as a whole. This system also demonstrates the possibility of a previously unrecognized human role in maintaining productive riparian ecosystems and salmon runs, potentially providing a range of valued social-ecological outcomes. Practices of respect hold promise for new strategies to manage bear-human interactions, but such successful systems may be irreducibly small scale and place based.

Oct 3, 2009 — Blog Post: Hunters: Don't forget your bear spray

It's hunting season, and thousands of gun-wielding men and women are creeping stealthily through bear habitat looking for game. Bear spray could be the difference between a good story and a serious injury.

Aug 17, 2009 — Web Page: Managing Bears

Non-lethal alternatives provide an effective management tool and incorporate a more holistic, long-term approach to bear management.

Aug 13, 2009 — Web Page: Food Conditioning

Conditioning is a simple learning technique we use to train our pets by giving them positive feedback or a food reward if we want them to repeat a behaviour. Bears, too, need to be trained, usually through a crucial experience that initiates the chain of behavioral change. First, bears need an opportunity to learn where to get nutrient rich food from people. Then, its just a matter of time before the bear repeats the behaviour that produces the (food) reward.

Jun 16, 2009 — Web Page: Behaviour

Understanding bear behaviour is an essential part of creating safe environments for both bears and people.

Jun 16, 2009 — Web Page: General Characteristics

Bears are highly evolved social animals with intelligence comparable to that of the great apes.

Jun 16, 2009 — Web Page: Know the Difference

Jun 16, 2009 — Web Page: North America's Bears

This website concentrates on the two species you are most likely to encounter: the black bear and the grizzly (or brown) bear.

Jun 16, 2009 — Web Page: Bear Deterrents

Jun 14, 2009 — Web Page: Bear Deterrents

Despite our best efforts to bear-proof our homes, businesses, communities and campsites, sometimes they show up anyways. When they do, there are several ways to warn you of their presence, keep them from receiving unwanted food rewards or actively teach them where they're not wanted

Apr 15, 2009 — Web Page: Work safe in bear habitat

Encounters with bears rarely lead to aggressive behaviour and attacks are even rarer. There are no hard and fast rules when it comes to bears, but these tips.

Apr 15, 2009 — Web Page: Bear Smart in the Backcountry

Bear Safety Essentials: Keeping Encounters Positive and Free from Conflict

Mar 1, 2009 — Book: Bear~ology: Fascinating Bear Facts, Tales & Trivia

Bear~ology is a treasure-trove of folklore and amazing trivia, in which the reader can discover the history and nature of all bears, including black bears, grizzlies and polar bears.

Feb 1, 2009 — Book: Smiling Bears: A Zookeeper Explores the Behaviour and Emotional Life of Bears

A zookeeper’s extraordinary relationship with the bears she has rehabilitated and her insights into their behavior and emotional lives.

Dec 31, 2008 — Report/White Paper: The Apennine brown bear: A critical review of its status and conservation problems

The small and isolated population of brown bears (Ursus arctos marsicanus) in the Central Apennines, Italy, has been protected since the establishment of the National Park of Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise in 1923, but little active management has been implemented during the past decades to ensure effective conservation of this population. Being almost exclusively distributed within the National Park and its immediate surrounding mountains, the Apennine brown bear population suffered high human-caused mortality in the last 3 decades, but no reliable estimates of its size, trends, and vital statistics have ever been produced. Given the paucity of information available at the international level, the authors have critically reviewed the status of the Apennine brown bear population and have summarized data and information concerning past management.

Dec 31, 2008 — Book: Seasons of the Grizzly in Knight Inlet

This is the story of the struggle for life of the salmon, the bears, the birds and the forest around Glendale Cove in Knight Inlet, B.C.

Dec 31, 2008 — Scientific Paper: Human–brown bear conflicts in Artvin, northeastern Turkey: Encounters, damage, and attitudes

Abstract: The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is the largest carnivore in Turkey and has been legally protected since 2003. However, increasing levels of conflict between brown bears and humans have been reported for several regions, especially for Artvin in northeastern Turkey. We documented the conflict in an attempt to understand human attitudes and responses and evaluate existing and potential damage prevention techniques. The study was conducted within landscapes at different scales, ranging from a core area defined by a large valley system to the whole of the Artvin Province. Data on close encounters, injuries, and damage caused were collected through government records, published literature, and open-ended interviews with the local people. On more than two-thirds of close encounters recorded, no harm occurred to bear or people. Bear attacks on humans were rare and only occasionally led to non-fatal injuries. Nevertheless, several bears were shot and killed in the study area during the study (2002–2005), apparently as a consequence of damage experienced by farmers. Interviews indicated a widespread belief that bears have become more of a problem. Bear damage was reported mostly in late summer for field crops and orchards and in spring for beehives. Precautions taken by villagers relied mostly on locally available technologies and varied in effectiveness against bears. We propose that introduction and implementation of modern techniques of exclusion such as portable electric fences around valuable resources (e.g. bee yards), improvements in bear awareness, and effective cooperation among various stakeholders would reduce human–bear conflict to acceptable levels in the region.

Dec 31, 2008 — Book: When Bears Whisper, Do You Listen?

A must read guide for every bear viewer and anyone else who might face close encounters.

Nov 25, 2008 — Book: The Black Grizzly of Whiskey Creek

In describing the true events surrounding a series of frightening bear attacks in l980, a bestselling nature/adventure author explores our relationship with the great grizzly.

Sep 20, 2008 — Book: Bear Smart Kids

This book will make you smarter than the average bear! This is a wonderfully illustrated colouring and activity book about bears around the world, bear necessities, the life of a bear, crosswords and much more. A fantastic book for teachers, a joint publication produced by the Get Bear Smart Society and Wilderness Committee.

Sep 20, 2008 — Book: Born to be Wild

The best of Karen and Kennan's field experiences in the wild with bears — grizzly, polar and blacks. Meet "GRAND-PAW," "THUNDER-PAW" and "FEROSHA," to name just a few bears that have their own story to tell! Full of natural history and much more.

Aug 9, 2008 — Scientific Paper: Can natural disturbance-based forestry rescue a declining population of grizzly bears?

This paper evaluates the long-term (100-year) persistence of a grizzly bear population in Alberta, Canada using forest simulations and habitat modelling. Even with harvesting the same volume of timber, natural disturbance-based forestry resulted in a larger human footprint than traditional two-pass forestry with road densities reaching 1.39 km/km2 or more than three times baseline conditions and suggested maximum levels of security for grizzly bears. Natural disturbance-based forestry is an ill-suited management tool for sustaining declining populations of grizzly bears. A management model that explicitly considers road access is more likely to improve grizzly bear population persistence than changing the size of clear-cuts.

Apr 6, 2008 — Scientific Paper: Efficacy of Bear Deterrent Spray in Alaska

This is a comprehensive look at bear spray incidents that occurred in Alaska, USA, from 1985 to 2006. The authors analyzed 83 bear spray incidents involving brown bears (Ursus arctos; 61 cases, 74%), black bears (Ursus americanus; 20 cases, 24%), and polar bears (Ursus maritimus; 2 cases, 2%). Of the 72 cases where persons sprayed bears to defend themselves, red pepper spray stopped bears’ undesirable behavior 92% of the time when used on brown bears, 90% for black bears, and 100% for polar bears. Bear spray represents an effective alternative to lethal force and should be considered as an option for personal safety for those recreating and working in bear country. (JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 72(3):640–645; 2008)

Jan 1, 2008 — Scientific Paper: A retrospective evaluation of the effectiveness of aversive conditioning on grizzly bears in Peter Lougheed Provincial Park

Jay Honeyman evaluated the effectiveness of aversive conditioning (AC) as a non-lethal management technique to reduce bear-human conflict, and ultimately reduce bear mortality. The conclusion? AC is an effective management tool to reduce human conflicts with grizzly bears and promote bear population stability.

Dec 31, 2007 — Report/White Paper: Public Perceptions of Conservation of Grizzly Bears in the Foothills Model Forest: A Survey of Local and Edmonton Residents

A study was undertaken to determine public perceptions of the sustainability of grizzly bear populations, perceived threats to grizzly bear populations, knowledge of grizzly bear biology and ecology, attitudes toward grizzly bears, preferences related to grizzly bear management, and views on public involvement in grizzly bear management.

Jan 1, 2007 — Book: Alaska Magnum Bear Safety Manual

A bear safety manual tailored to the unique challenges of hiking, camping, fishing, hunting and watching wildlife in Alaska and western Canada — including definitive advice for safe bear viewing (Ten Golden Rules).

Feb 10, 2006 — Scientific Paper: A habitat-based framework for grizzly bear conservation in Alberta

This paper describes a method of estimating relative habitat states and conditions as surrogates of fitness (i.e. survival) using models of occupancy and mortality risk. Primary sinks or high attractive sinks were evident in the foothills where bears were using forest edges associated with forestry and oil and gas activities on Crown lands, while primary habitats or safe harbour sites were most common to protected alpine/sub-alpine sites.

Dec 31, 2005 — Report/White Paper: Bear Spray vs. Bullets Which offers better protection?

No deterrent is 100% effective, but compared to all others, including firearms, proper use of bear spray has proven to be the best method for fending off threatening and attacking bears, and for preventing injury to the person and animal involved.

May 5, 2005 — Scientific Paper: Habitat ecology, conservation, and projected population viability of grizzly bears in west-central Alberta

Grizzly bear populations in Alberta are threatened by habitat loss and high rates of human-caused mortality. The goal of this paper, Nielsen's PHD thesis, was to examine and model habitat factors, both natural and anthropogenic, related to habitat selection, mortality, and persistence of grizzly bears in west-central Alberta.

Jan 1, 2005 — Book: Growing Up Grizzly: The True Story of Baylee and Her Cubs

Follow the true story of a young bear all alone in the Alaskan wilderness and the big-hearted grizzly family that embraced him as their own. Award-winning photographer Amy Shapira returned to the same remote cove in southeastern Alaska for six consecutive summers, capturing this incredible story as it unfolded. Through her breathtaking photographs and text from noted biologist and author Douglas H. Chadwick, the heartwarming tale of Baylee, her cubs, and the “adopted” bear Emmett comes alive for readers young and old.

Jan 1, 2005 — Scientific Paper: Brown bear habituation to people—safety, risks, and benefits (From the Field)

Recently, brown bear (Ursus arctos) viewing has increased in coastal Alaska and British Columbia, as well as in interior areas such as Yellowstone National Park. Viewing is most often being done under conditions that offer acceptable safety to both people and bears. We analyze and comment on the underlying processes that lead brown bears to tolerate people at close range. Although habituation is an important process influencing the distance at which bears tolerate people, other variables also modify levels of bear-to-human tolerance. Because bears may react internally with energetic costs before showing an overt reaction to humans, we propose a new term, the Overt Reaction Distance, to emphasize that what we observe is the external reaction of a bear. In this paper we conceptually analyze bear viewing in terms of benefits and risks to people and bears. We conclude that managers and policy-makers must develop site-specific plans that identify the extent to which bear-to-human habituation and tolerance will be permitted. The proposed management needs scientific underpinning. It is our belief that bear viewing, where appropriate, may promote conservation of bear populations, habitats, and ecosystems as it instills respect and concern in those who participate.

Jan 1, 2005 — Scientific Paper: Alaskan brown bears, humans, and habituation

We present a new paradigm for understanding habituation and the role it plays in brown bear (Ursus arctos) populations and interactions with humans in Alaska. We assert that 3 forms of habituation occur in Alaska: bear-to-bear, bear-to-human, and human-to-bear. We present data that supports our theory that bear density is an important factor influencing a bear's overt reaction distance (ORD); that as bear density increases, overt reaction distance decreases, as does the likelihood of bear- human interactions. We maintain that the effects of bear-to-bear habituation are largely responsible for not only shaping bear aggregations but also for creating the relatively safe environment for bear viewing experienced at areas where there are high densities of brown bears. By promoting a better understanding of the forces that shape bear social interactions within populations and with humans that mingle with them, we can better manage human activities and minimize bear-human conflict.

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